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How does a metal detector work?
Pulse induction technology
The pulse induction technique (PI technique) is based on the principle, that the search coil em>since strong and very short magnetic pulses, which in the metallic object or other conductive objects electrical currents create. These currents can then also be received by the probe, since it switches from magnetic pulses to reception after transmitting. This type of induction allows metal objects in very large depth
can be discovered. At the same time, this principle allows the depth of the search to be increased by enlarging the search coils.
During the transmission phase the coil at the lower end of the metal detector between 600 and 2000times per second of strong direct current is passed through. After some time a very strong magnetic field is generated so that it is terminated very abruptly. This results in eddy currents in adjacent metal objects. The larger the object is, the stronger becomes this eddy current. Now the unit automatically switches to the reception phase.
In the reception phase, the secondary magnetic field generated by the eddy currents in the metal object acts on the coil and generates a small electrical voltage there, which is transmitted via a Cable is forwarded to the control panel, where the searcher is informed with an acoustic and visual Signal about the Strength of this Signal. The larger the object, the larger the secondary magnetic field and the stronger the
This method offers the advantage that the coil can be designed in almost any shape. By enlargement of the coil larger eddy currents can be generated, so that the search depth with increasing size of the probe can be generated.
is increasing. This allows you to search larger areas much faster than with small coils. Large devices work with two or three meterslarge probes and increase the search depth up to twelve meters with this size. These special devices are mainly used by archaeologists who need to search large areas as effectively as possible.
A.C. current measurement
The other measurement is called AC measurement or “continuous wave” (CW mode). In contrast to pulse induction technology, which works with strong direct current, alternating current is used here. The probe continuously emits a low frequency AC signal which is within a frequency range of around 10 kHz. The probe not continuously switches between transmit and receive, as is the case with pulse measurement, but measures continuously the received signals after amplitude and phase, which are analyzed in the spectral range. Each metallic object has a different conductivity, which is now detected by the probe. The received data are analyzed with respect to the change of the amplitudes and phase positions. So the device can determine which Art is the object lying in the ground and which size it has. Some devices also work with different transmission frequencies, which are transmitted simultaneously. So the result can be refined again.
What are the different types of metal detectors?
Probably the best known type is a metal detector, which is suitable for searching for large as well as for small objects. These all-round metal detectors are very popular with beginners or treasure hunters who want to discover the largest possible bandwidth on objects. The disadvantage about this construction is that very small objects and objects are displayed in large depth not at all or not correctly. Therefore they are mostly equipped with a PinPointer Function, which allows to locate the find more precisely. This saves long search. Because of the construction of these devices you can rather search larger areas, whereas a fine coordinated search with another device should be done. This type of device is therefore used to scan larger areas. Due to their large application range they are suitable for beginners, but also for professional treasure hunters, who search whole areas for found objects.
Once you have found a location, where many different found accumulate, you can fall back on a special device that was designed for location of very small objects. This allows very small found pieces to be located up to depth of up to half a meter. Since coils are often watertight nowadays, such probes are also used in gold search, since small nuggets are deposited mainly in shallow areas of rivers. If you have found a good location in the river, you can fish out of the water with such a device within one day many nuggets. The times, in which you had to dig long time in the river to do this, are fortunately over nowadays due to such devices.
If you have dedicated yourself completely to Gold in your search, you can fall back on special devices that were designed only for the search for gold. These are used for example in flows or in old mines if gold is suspected here. The advantage of such a device is that it is very sensitive to Gold reacting and referring due to its construction and referring provides much more reliable results than a normal metal detector.
If you really want to go under water, there are special underwater metal detectors. They are, depending on model, absolutely waterproof up to certain depth and enable the search for estimates on the sea bottom. Such devices are used, for example, when a wreck has been detected. Here archaeologists first work with waterproof metal detectors to find coins and other metal objects buried in the sand.
There is also a fitting metal detector for very deep flyingstrong> objects. Those who suspect treasures in greater depth must fall back on special devices with which good depth detection is possible. This is possible for example with a 3D ground radar. These devices often not only indicate whether there are metal objects in the ground, but also whether there are cavities in the ground that indicate caves or graves.
Advantages of a metal detector
Thus, anyone who has ever travelled by plane has already passed through a very powerful metal detector. Before the passenger is allowed to enter the security area of an airport, he or she must undergo a check for metallic objects. To do this, you pass through a kind of gate in which very powerful probes are mounted at the bottom and top as well as at the sides, with which the passenger is examined for metal objects. This guarantees that nobody can bring knife, guns or other weapons into the plane. If the large metal detector strikes, one is asked into an adjacent plot, where one is further examined by a policeman with a portable metal detector. This allows the signal to be precisely located and determined, because the large metal detector also detects metallic belt buckles and trouser buttons. This method is very effective and allows a high safety in flight operations.
Everyone knows how annoying it can be to lose an important object in the wild. Here there is usually very high grass or impenetrable undergrowth in which smaller objects like keys or a ring can hardly be found anymore. Even if you manage it, it usually takes a lot of time. Again, the metal detector may be of large advantage, provided the lost object is also of metal. There are many Experience reports of desperate people who lost their wedding ring or car keys while gardening or on a trip to the countryside and could not find them again. For such a search a quite simple metal detector is usually sufficient, because the lost objects often still lie in direct surface proximity. Those, who finally found their hering or keys again, are usually so enthusiastic that they also used the device for the first real treasure hunts. Thus a difficult situation becomes the foundation stone for an exciting hobby.
Most people use a metal detector for the so-called sondeln, of course. Under this term one summarizes the search for hidden objects in ground, which is operated by private persons. In the meantime there is a large group of people who have discovered this search for themselves and have become true hobby archaeologists. Most of the time you start looking for objects in your own garden and are already surprised how many things you can discover on the local land. The song is like a trip into the past. Especially in forests in Germany many relics from metal can be discovered, most of them come from the World War II Period. Here the soldiers lost Orden, Money Pieces and Munition in the Fights, which today are brought back to light by the Hobby Archaeologists. If you proceed with caution, you can make some very exciting Find that can give you an idea of what money looked like a hundred years ago. Many use metal detectors also at beach, because here objects are very often lost. Once they are covered with some sand, they can almost not be found anymore. However, if you have a metal detector at hand, smaller objects can be found quickly. Since most probes are also waterproof, you can even use a metal detector to search for smaller gold nuggets in rivers.
Of course, metal detectors also have great advantages in the professional sector. Craftsmen use them to track down copper cables lying in the ground so that they are not damaged during work. smaller Metal detectors are used to determine the exact location of current– or water pipes in the wall. This ensures that none of these lines will be damaged when hammering in a nail or when drilling into the wall. Especially archaeologists of course use the advantages that a metal detector brings for their work. With it, large areas can be checked quickly and easily for metal, cavities or graves. After the evaluation of these data you can start the first excavations. Thus it is no longer necessary to dig around the entire soil, but one can effectively only examine the places where potential finds are suspected. The military mainly uses metal detectors to detect mines. Here this technique already saved many lives.
What functions should I pay attention to when buying a metal detector?
- Price Metal Detectors
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Irrespective of Price there are two further Functions, which are often observed when purchase not. On the one hand, it must be ensured that the device can be correctly adapted to the body size. If the rod at which the probe is located cannot be extended sufficiently, the search becomes a Qual especially for tall people. Therefore, inform yourself in advance whether the length of the device also corresponds to your body size. The other function, which is often not considered, affects the probe. It is very useful if you can vary the size and shape of the probe of the metal detector. For this purpose, it must be possible to purchase additional search coils or to attach other makes to the device. So you can, depending on Search and Terrain, replace the normal coil with a much larger one, e.g. to first probe a large area. Here one can place small flag where one has discovered potential findings with the large probe. If you now mount a smaller probe, you can detect smaller objects much better.
How did we test the metal detectors?
In order to guarantee an unadulterated comparison result, we have subjected each metal detector to exactly the same treatment. First we prepared a large number of pots in which we buried various objects. These included cutlery, gold ring, nails, aluminium foil, beverage cans, copper coins, silver jewellery and similarthings. The decisive factor was that they were made of different metals and also had different sizes. In addition, we buried objects like a metal pot and car rims, made of iron, as well as aluminum, up to a depth from aan-half meters in soil in in one place larger objects like a metal pot and car rims, both made of iron, as well as aluminum, up to a depth from aandhalf meters in soil> in one place With this we test how deep the devices could localize the respective objects still localize.
Each pot was now labelled so that we always knew exactly which object was in the ground and how deep it was buried. Here we first let our Fantasy run free, because also in Nature large and small Parts can occur, which are sometimes deeper or sometimes closer to the Surface. To be able to compare the different comparison results with each other, we tested each pot with a device and looked whether it recognized the type of metal and the depthcorrectly. For high-qualitydevices with PinPointer function we of course also paid attention to whether the object was localized correctly. For this we had put a small stick at the place where the object was in the ground. On a separate area of about one square metre we buried completely different types of metal next to garbage, which consisted mainly of aluminium. With this we test the discrimination function.
So we were able to compare different devices and find out which of them met the high expectations we have on a well-functioning metal detector. Because anyone who decides to become a treasure hunter should have a reliably functioning metal detector so that the search does not become a large disappointment.
But the best device is of very little use if it is not set correctly. That's why you should take your time and build a similar test course before you go into the free nature. Just take a few large flower pots and bury different items from metal in them. Remember the Metal types or attach small Letter to the Pots so that you don't get confused later. Now test with your new device if it displays the different metals correctly and if the items can be located exactly. You should also try to familiarize yourself with the discrimination function so that you can use the new metal detector correctly.
What does a metal detector cost?
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Top5 Metal Detector Manufacturer
- XP Metal Detectors
The absolute top company is Minelab, which was founded in 1985. These devices are also priced very high, but they allow the user very excellent search results. Especially the market launch of the SD 2100, which was specially developed for gold detection, triggered a real gold rush in 1995, because the results spread quickly. Due to the innovative positioning technology, products of the company are almost exclusively used by professionals, since no value is placed on a broad product range, but on the development of highly specialized devices. This is why these devices are also used by the military, which uses them to reliably detect mines and save so many lives.
Internet vs. specialized trade: where do I best buy my metal detector?
In the past, it was assumed that such highly specialised devices like a metal detector should be bought in a specialist shop. But if you look at the specialist shops that offer such equipment, you will quickly see that there are hardly any special shops for treasure hunters. Rather, they are often offered in weapons– or outdoor shops, in which the sellers are more familiar with other areas. In addition, only beginner devices are usually offered here, since the sale of very expensive metal detectors is manageable and these devices can quickly become a salesman, which must then be sold below the actual value in order to generate at least part of the invested capital again. Since the treasure search with metal detectors is a rather unusual hobby, which is not often asked for, these shops often have one or two different beginner models in stock, but offer otherwise hardly available accessories like other coils or fitting carrier bags.
The purchase of a metal detector on the Internet, on the other hand, offers the customer a variety an advantages. First of all, there are suppliers who offer a assortment of more than forty different metal detectors, which can also usually be shipped on the same day. Here you can find the perfect device for your requirements with a little browsing and you don't have to make any compromises just because the right metal detector is not available in a shop right now. In addition, it is usually also possible to see directly whether the device is in stock.
Many companies offer Express shipping, so that the next day you hold the selected Model in your hands without having to go to a special shop. The companies specializing in these devices also offer a wide range of accessories, which can be ordered at the same time. This ranges from excavation tool over matching carrier bags up to differently sized coils and the matching batteries. Those who run such internet shops are also usually absolute professionals in this field. So you can often be quick with a telephone call concern and get good tips when choosing the right device. In the case of a complaint or a defect these providers also have a wide range of spare parts, so that you can quickly return to the treasure hunt. Therefore it is recommended to buy a Metal detector from Onlinehandel, because Profis operate these shops, which you can rely on when buying such a Special device.
What do I have to pay attention to when using a metal detector?
On the technical page one must first familiarize oneself well with one's device. A smaller test track is suitable for this purpose, on which various objects made of metal are buried, which must then be detected with the device. You should not only bury valuable objects like coins or jewellery, but also in direct proximity worthless iron and garbage made of aluminium, such as cans or aluminium foil. The objects should also be buried in different depth so that you can see how powerful the metal detector can still detect them. Now you can find out how effective the device works and which Error sources are possible during the search. It is especially important to get to know the discrimination function well, because it can be used to separate previous worthless scrap from precious metals. For this training you should take enough time, because it is the basis for a successful and frustration-free search. Once you have completed these first insertions, you can first examine your own garden. The advantage is that you can't be disturbed and nobody can complain about some holes in the ground. You will be amazed at what you can find in your own garden.
If you have first experiences and want to search for finds in nature, you first have to inform yourself about the legal situation regarding the treasure hunt with metal detectors (see also the detailed article: “Legal aspects of the treasure hunt“). It is great that in Germany treasure finds are tax-free. So whoever finds a big gold lump wins! However, the use is subject to some restrictions, which are explained in detail in the corresponding article.
If you want to dig on private property, you should first obtain the consent of the owner. If you want to be on the safe side, you can draw up a small contract with him.